Boyer's model of scholarship is an academic model advocating expansion of the traditional definition of scholarship and research into four types of scholarship. It was introduced in 1990 by Ernest Boyer. According to Boyer, traditional research, or the scholarship of discovery, had been the center of academic life and crucial to an institution's advancement, but it needed to be broadened and made more flexible to include not only the new social and environmental challenges beyond the campus but also the reality of contemporary life. His vision was to change the research mission of universities by redefining scholarship.
He proposed that scholarship includes these four different categories of activity:
- The scholarship of discovery, which includes original research that advances knowledge (i.e., basic research);
- The scholarship of integration, which involves synthesis of information across disciplines, across topics within a discipline, or across time (i.e., interprofessional education, or science communication);
- The scholarship of application (also later called the scholarship of engagement), which goes beyond the service duties of a faculty member to those within or outside the university and involves the application of disciplinary expertise with results that can be shared with and/or evaluated by peers; and
- The scholarship of teaching and learning, which involves the systematic study of teaching and learning processes.
Boyer's model has been embraced across academia with occasional refinements, such as specific applications for different disciplines.